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Translations of Encyclopedia about Physics


Milestones in the Advancement of Physics

Ancient Greece The first physical laws and theories.
400 B.C.

260 B.C.

Demokritos believed that matter is made up of indivisible particles.

Archimedes described pressure and the principles of torque.

Middle Ages Church dogmatism prevented the further advancement of knowledge and any doubt cast on them.
12/13th centuries The first universities are founded (under the supervision of the church).
Renaissance The beginning of experimental physics. The churches influence on natural sciences weakens.
Modern Age  
1600 William Gilbert considers the earth’s centre as a magnet.
1638 Galileo Galilei establishes the theory of scientific mechanics.
1642 Blaise Pascal construes the mechanic counting machine used for making calculations.
1643 Evangelista Torricelli discovers and measures atmospheric pressure.
1665 Isaac Newton publishes his key work of Principal of Gravitational and Movement Laws.
1701 Joseph Sauveur defines the concept of" acoustics" for the study of sound.
1703 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz sheds light on binary systems, which later become the foundation for computer techniques.
1799 Alessandro Volta invents the battery.
1800 William Herschel discovers infra-red rays.
1803 John Dalton formulates his atom theory..
1819 Hans Christian Orsted discovers electromagnetics..
1821 Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic waves.
1822 George Ohm establishes the relation between voltage and current: Ohm’s Law.
1827 George Boole established Boole’s algebra, based on which today’s microprocessors are founded.
1831 Michael Faraday discovers the principles of electromagnetic induction.
1843 James P. Joule clarified the relation between heat, electricity and work.
1846 Lord Kelvin (William Thomson of Largs) formulated the principles to thermodynamics.
1869 Dimitrij Mendelejew formulated the periodic system of elements.
1879 William Crookes studied short term radiation in tubes.
1888 Heinrich R. Herz created experimental radio waves.
1896 Wilhelm C. Röntgen emission, which was named after him.
1897 Joseph John Tomson discovers the electron.
1900 Max Planck comes out with quantum theory.
1904 John Fleming invents the electron tube.
1904 Albert Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity.
1906 Lee de Forest devises the theory of vacuum.
1911 Ernest Rutherford creates the model of the atom, with its nucleus and its outer shell.
1913 Niels Bohr comes out with his postulates of individual electron paths around the atom’s nucleus.
1915 Albert Einstein publishes his general theory of relativity.
1919 Ernest Rutherford transforms the nucleus of nitrogen into the nucleus of oxygen.
1930er Claude Shannon develops the logical circuit as the basis for the digital computer.
1932 John D. Cockcroft and Ernest T. Walton build the first particle accelerator.
1938 Otto Hahn and Fritz Straßmann discover nuclear fission.
1940 (40-léta) Konrád Zuse, John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry put together the first computer. Johann von Neumann then prepares a design for the standard computer.
1942 Enrico Fermi builds the first nuclear reactor.
1943 ENIAC, the first programmable, mutlipurpose computer.
1945 Pressed joints.
1947 USA - the first transistor is invented.
1958 Jack Kilby develops the first integrated circuit.
1964 Murray Gell-Mann confirms the existence of quarks.
1965 Intel builds the first microprocessor chip.
1980 American scientists come out with the theory of chaos.
1984 Apple introduces its Macintosh computer onto the market, the first computer with graphical user plotting.
1986 Development of the superconductor.

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