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Translations of Encyclopedia about Physics

 

Electronics

Electronics is a branch of physics which builds further on the knowledge gained in electrical technology.

Electronics studies the movement of electrons controlled under an electric or magnetic field, electrical current, light, and so on.

The importance of electronic components lies in the fact that, among other matters, they take the place of mechanically moving parts. This leads to a longer shelf life of an appliance, its faster speed, lower use of energy, and the smaller amount of room that it takes up. This is just one example of the ongoing miniaturisation taking place around us.

Electronics continues to make changes in our daily lives and may be found in information, signalling, consumer and industrial electronics such as television sets, radios, kitchen appliances, telephones, computers, the internet and so on.

Electrical circuits fulfil countless tasks in various machines and all these connections function according to similar principles and are made up of various electronic components.

Electronic systems use, amongst others, such components as condensers and capacitors, electrical coils, semi-conductors, transistors and integrated circuits (ICs).

These components are then connected to non-conducting, plastic boards and interconnected through conductive paths. Most sold appliances are equipped with electronic circuits supplied to the manufacture in already prepared units with standard electronic components. These circuits are also being continually replaced by more flexible, programmable microprocessors.

Microprocessors and other complicated electronic components enable a machine or equipment to be programmable, which makes its use easier and which improves the quality, speed and safety of the chores they accomplish. Take the programmable washing machine as an example.

Thanks to miniaturisation, the size of appliances and machinery is becoming smaller. Let us compare the size of microwave ovens with the size of gas cookers, where some older gas appliances need to have their gas tanks occasionally replaced.

Contrary to this, a microwave oven can make a cup of copy faster than two minutes while not requiring supervision. Furthermore, it is so simple even a child could prepare it. Thanks to integrated safety elements, such modern devices are also much less likely to cause injury or accident.

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