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Translations of Encyclopedia about Physics


Electricity in the Home

Energy for the home is generated in electrical power plants, which generate alternating current of frequency between 50 and 60 Hz. Alternating current can be easily transformed, for which reason current transferred over large distances is transferred at high voltages and at low currents, so as to keep energy loss at a minimum.

Three separate conductors are connected to each electrical circuit found in the home: two are operational, which conduct the electricity, and one acts as a protective grounding conductor (neutral grounding is used in the Czech Republic, where the neutral conductor is connected to a protective plug located in the socket, for which reason only two conductors are connected to the socket). There are also circuit breaker switches and safety fuses used in domestic electrical circuits. We are familiar with fuses, which respond to overloading of electricity. Such fuses are made from a non-conductive shell and from a metal wire through which the current within the main electrical circuit passes through. If the current gets too high, the wire within the fuse melts, which breaks the circuit and stops current from passing through it. This protects the circuit within the home from the unwanted effects of electrical overloading, which could lead to such damages as burnt wiring and fire outbreaks. Protective switches are also in use and which react very quickly, protecting electrical devices against current surges.

Allowing a large amount of current to pass through the home may cause damage to some electrical appliances, which may in turn lead to a fire, which can burn down an entire building, cause financial damage and even endanger life.

Over time, mechanical appliances, such as the manual blender, have been replaced by electrical appliances, such as the electric blender, which in turn are being replaced by electronic appliances.

New, wall-hung clocks or wristband watches work on an electronic basis, take up less room and are most often more accurate than their predecessors.

Another reason for the rapid expansion of electronic appliances is due to their consumption of electricity. Mechanical movements require more energy (current), which means that, with such appliances operating on mechanical principles, batteries run out sooner.

Electric drives can serve to distribute heat, water, or fulfil other purposes. Before we decide to draw from an electrical power supply, we may often want to ask what is the source of such power.

Electrical power plants which pollute the environment are gradually being replaced by hydro electric, solar generated and thermal generated power stations, which are kinder to nature. Unfortunately, this process of change is not progressing fast enough, for which reason it may be argued that any amount of energy we use will in some way cause damage to the environment around us.

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