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Lift Lift (previously also referred to as weight) is the coefficient of mass and centrifugal forces which occur as a result of the rotation of the earth. W = m x g Torque Torque T is the coefficient of forces and the distance between the location of their effect from the centre of rotation. T = F x d Pressure Pressure is calculated according to force and the surface area on which the force is applied: P = F / A Force and Motion The Second Law of Newton Force F is the coefficient of acceleration and mass Speed Speed is the proportion of a trajectory traveled during a time period and that time period. v = s / t 

Constant Acceleration
Acceleration is the proportion of the calculated difference in change of speed and the time interval in which this change took place.
a = (v2 – v1) / t
Impulse
P = m x v
a = acceleration
v = speed
t = time or time period
m = mass
v1 = initial speed
P = impulse
F = applied force
v2 = final speed
s = position after time t (the trajectory along which an object travelled)
Gravity
The force of gravity F is directly proportional to the gravity constant and the mass of two objects and indirectly proportional to the square of their distance d.
F = gravitational force between two objects
G = gravitational constant
m1 = mass of object 1
m2 = mass of object 2
d = distance between the two objects
Friction
The force of friction is directly proportional to the force applied by the object onto itself and the coefficient of friction relating to the coarseness of the surface concerned.
F = x Fn
F = frictional force
= coefficient of friction
Fn = force pressuring the object onto itself
Work
Executed work W is the coefficient between force and the distance along which this force was applied.
W = F x d
W= executed work
F = applied force
d = the distance along which the force is applied
Centripetal Force
Centripetal force is the force which acts on an object in the direction towards the centre of a circle while creating centripetal acceleration and maintaining the object in a circular path. It is directly proportional to the multiple of the second power of the speed and indirectly proportional to the radius of the circle.
F = (m x v x v) / r
F = centripetal force
m = mass of the object
v = speed of travel along the circle’s path
r = radius of the circle
Pressure in Liquids Pressure in liquids is directly proportional to the consistency of the liquid, the depth of the liquid and the gravitational acceleration of the earth. P = x g x h Elasticity
Elasticity is the ability of a substance to return to its original shape and size after when tension or pressure deformation forces are no longer applied to it. Stretching is the proportionate applied force provided that the object’s stretch limit is not exceeded. X F Laws which Describe the Behaviour of Gases Boyle’s Law The volume of gas at a constant temperature is indirectly proportional to pressure. V 1 / P GayLassac’s Law The volume of a set amount of gas under constant pressure is proportional to absolute temperature (in Kelvin). V T 

Law of Ideal Gases
The product of pressure and the volume of gas is directly proportional to temperature. The relative constant is called the gas constant.
P V = R T
V = volume
P = pressure
T = temperature (in Kelvin)
R = gas constant
Electrical Current
Current, voltage, resistance
Resistance R is the quotient of voltage and current. (Ohm’s law)
R = U / I
Output
Output P is the quotient of voltage and current.
P = U x I
I = current
U = voltage
R = resistance
P = output
Optical Image
(the refraction of light when passing through a lens)
The inverse value of the focal distance equals the sum of the inverse value of distance of the image created by the lens and the distance of the object from which the image was made.
f = focal distance of lens/mirror
g = distance of object from which the image was made (the distance between the
object and the lens/mirror)
b = the distance of the created image (the distance between the created image
and the lens/mirror)
Units and Quantities SIunits (units of the international unit system  Système International d´Unités) Physical quantities Sl unit Symbol
length meter m weight kilogram kg time second s electrical current ampere A temperature Kelvin K luminous intensity candle cd substance amount mol mol straight angle radian rad spatial angle steradian sr frequency Hertz Hz energy/work/temperature Joule J force Newton N pressure Pascal (Newton/ m^{2}) Pa (N. m^{–2}) electrical charge Coulomb C voltage volt V electrical resistance ohm 

Units of Measurement
Unit
corresponds to
distance
1 centimetre (cm)
10 millimetre (mm)
1 meter (m)
100 centimetre
1 kilometre (km)
1000 meter
1 nautical mile
1852 meter
Unit measurements
1 kilogram (kg)
1000 grams
1 ton (t)
1000 kilograms
1 metric cent
100 kilograms (q)
1 pound
0,5 kilogram
1 (ct) karat
0,2 g (bei precious stones)
1 karat (ct)
1/24 weight proportion of gold (24ct  pure gold)
Surface measurements
1 square centimetres (cm^{2})
100 square millimetres (mm^{2} )
1 square metre (m^{2})
10.000 centimetres square
1 Ar (a)
100 metres square
1 hectare (ha)
10.000 metres square
1 square kilometre (km^{2} )
1.000.000 square metres
Space and volume
1 cubic centimetre (cm^{3} )
1 millilitre (ml)
1 litre (l)
1000 millilitre
1 cubic metre (m^{3})
1000 litres
Hollow measurements
1 centilitre (cl)
10 millilitres (ml)
1 decilitre (dl)
10 centilitres
1 litre (l)
10 decilitres
1 decilitre (dal)
10 litres
1 hectolitre (hl)
10 decilitres
1 kilolitre (kl)
10 hectolitres
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