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We run into quantities every day of our lives. Quantities are composed of a number value and a unit of measurement.
Therefore, with the statement 300 g, we have the numerical value of 300 and the unit of measurement, the gram (g).
We use measurements and weight daily: when making our purchases, during our work, or during our free time. In the end, we may find ourselves converting between units without even thinking about it. For example, we may say "we drove 23 km", although no one else might convert that into metres, because that would be unnecessary. We use different prefixes instead of multiples. The most important prefixes are:
Abbreviation 
Prefix 
Meaning 
Multiple of ten 
Fraction 
Decimal number 
k 
kilo 
thousand 
10^{3} 
1000 
1000 
d 
deci 
one tenth 
10^{1} 
0,1 

c 
centi 
one onehundredth 
10^{2} 
0,01 

m 
mili 
one onethousandth 
10^{3} 
0,001 
As the table shows, quantities and measurements can be converted into other quantities and measurements.
Example:
6 mg = 6 milligrams = 6 one thousandths of a gram 6 . g = 6 . 0.001 g = 6 . 10^{3} g.
Converting small units to large ones is attained by dividing their numerical value by the multiple relating to how many times the unit is greater than the original.
Example:
300g = ? kg
300 g : 1000 = 0.3 kg
Converting larger units to smaller ones is achieved by multiplying by the numerical value.
Example:
5 km = ? dm
5 km . 10000 = 50000dm
Besides the common prefixes, there are also many lessused ones, although still important.
Prefix  Abbreviation  Multiple of ten 
atto  a  10 ^{ –18} 
femto  f  10 ^{ –15} 
piko  p  10 ^{ –12} 
nano  n  10 ^{–9} 
mikro  m  10 ^{–6} 
mili  m  10 ^{–3} 
centi  c  10 ^{–2} 
deci  d  10 ^{–1} 
deka  da  10 ^{1} 
hekto  h  10 ^{2} 
kilo  k  10 ^{3} 
mega  M  10 ^{6} 
giga  G  10 ^{9} 
tera  T  10 ^{12} 
peta  P  10 ^{15} 
exa  E  10 ^{18} 
For measuring lengths, surface areas, volumes or mass, we usually use the decimal metric system.
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