**Translations of
Encyclopedia** by **Czech and Slovak to English translator**

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The basic unit of measuring surfaces is the square meter (m^{2}).
Using prefixes, we find the most common forms of measuring surfaces to be the
square millimetre (mm^{2}),
the square centimetre (cm^{2}),the
square decimetre (dm^{2})
and the square kilometre (km^{2}).
The are (a) and the hectare (ha) are used for measuring larger surface areas.
Calculating the surface area of different shapes will be explained in the
geometry section.

The square metre is a surface area 1 metre wide and 1 metre long, referred to as a square. All other units are defined in the same manner. For example, a square metre is a surface area which is 1 dm wide and 1 dm long, calculated as

1 dm . 1 dm = 1 dm^{2}

1 dm

1 dm

In the metric decimal system, the individual units of measuring surfaces are also precisely defined by a ratio to the metre, simplifying conversions between the various units:

1 m |
1 km |

1 m |
1 ha = 10 000 m |

1 m |
1 a = 100 m |

1 m |
1 dm |

1 m |
1 cm |

1 m |
1 mm |

As with length measurements, here also there are other systems of
defining surface areas, such as circular mils (cmil) when calculating the
surface area of circles, square inches – in^{2},
square chains – ch^{2},
square yards yd^{2}, square
feet – ft^{2}, square miles
–mi^{2}, and the acre – ac.

Surface measurements can be converted between the various systems used using a system of multiplication and division, a few samples of which are shown below:

circular mils (cmil) . 506.7 |
m m |

m m |
circular mils (cmil) |

square inches in |
mm |

mm |
square inches (in |

square inches in |
cm |

cm |
square inches (in |

square chains ch |
m |

m |
square chains (ch |

square yards yd |
m |

m |
square yards (yd |

square foot ft |
m |

m |
square foot (ft |

square mils mi |
km |

km |
square mils (mi |

square mils mi |
ha |

ha . 0.0039 |
square mils (mi |

acre ac . 0.405 |
ha |

ha . 2.471 |
acre (ac) |

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The basic unit of measurement of volume is the cubic metre (m^{3}).
With the use of prefixes, once again, we obtain the other commonly used units of
measuring volume: the cubic millimetre (mm^{3}), cubic centimetre (cm^{3}),
cubic decimetre (dm^{3}) and the cubic kilometre (km^{3}).
Calculation of the volume of different objects will be covered in the
geometry section.

One cubic metre is a volume of 1 metre height, 1 metre width and 1 metre length, or a cube with sides 1 metre long.

All other units are defined in the same manner, such that, for example, a cubic centimetre is a volume of 1 cm height, 1 cm width and 1 cm length, calculable in the following manner:

1 cm . 1 cm . 1 cm = 1 cm^{3}

In the metric decimal system, the different units relate in ratio to the metre, simplifying conversion between the various units:

1 m^{3} = 0.000000001 km^{3} |
1 km^{3} = 1000000000 m^{3} |

1 m^{3} = 1000 dm^{3} |
1 dm^{3} = 0.001 m^{3} |

1 m^{3} = 1000000 cm^{3} |
1 cm^{3} = 0.000001 m^{3} |

1 m^{3} = 1000000000 mm^{3} |
1 mm^{3} = 0.000000001 m^{3} |

If we measure the volume of some liquid, we are referring to a hollow space and use the litre (l) as a unit of measurement. With the use of prefixes, we then obtain the other, commonly used units of measurement: the millilitre (ml), centilitre (cl), decilitre (dl), decalitre (dal) and the hectolitre (hl).

One litre (of water at sea level) is equal to one cubic decimetre.

Therefore: 1 l = 1 dm^{3} = 1000 cm^{3}

We often use these calculations when describing the qualities of a particular
automobile. For example, we might say that a cylinder’s volume is 1.6 litres,
although in technical practice we would write 1,600 cm^{3}. Hollow
spaces can also be converted to volume spaces.

In the metric decimal system, all hollow space measurements relate to a precise ratio with the metre, simplifying conversion between the various units:

1 l = 0.01 hl 1 hl = 100 l

1 l = 0.1 dal 1 dal = 10 l

1 l = 10 dl 1 dl = 0.1 l

1 l = 100 cl 1 cl = 0.01 l

1 l = 1000 ml 1 ml = 0.001 l

As with the other forms of measurement, there also exist other methods of
measuring volume, such as cubic inches (in^{3}), fluid ounces (fl oz),
quarts (qt), gallons (gal), pints (pt), cubic feet (ft^{3}) and cubic
yards (yd^{3}).

A detailed list and conversion coefficients may be found in the appendix.

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