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Translations of Encyclopedia about Physics

 

Quantity of Heat, Its Measurement, Thermodynamics

Mechanical work, executed by a certain object, requires internal energy. The existence of this energy depends solely on the internal state of the substance, made up of a thermodynamic system and which consists of a constant volume. It is also created from the kinetic energy of a systems particles (kinetic energy), their mutual interaction, and partially also from the energy within their intermolecular particles (vibration energy).

Among other effects, adding energy to a system increases its temperature, which can be attributed to the increase of the systems internal energy and the speeding up of the vibration of its internal particles.

To measure a change in temperature, we require an objective heat sensor: a thermometer. By rule, a liquid thermometer is used whose glass encasement uses a liquid whose volume changes in response to temperature changes, expanding in response to heat to indicate the temperature of its surroundings.

By rule, the liquid used most often in thermometers is mercury, which is very sensitive to changes in temperature. With an increase in temperature, the liquid expands to move up along the column within the sealed capillary. The height of the liquid level then marks the surrounding temperature. Temperature can be measured using different units.

Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin
-20 -4 253
-10 14 263
0 32 273
10 50 283
20 68 293
30 86 303
40 104 313
50 122 323
60 140 333
70 158 343
80 176 353
90 194 363
100 212 373

Some important values in C:

- 273,15 C

Absolute zero; 0 kelvin

- 200 C

Condensation of air

- 89 C

Lowest temperature measured on the earth

0 C

The temperature at which water freezes

58 C

The highest natural temperature measured on the earth

100 C

The boiling temperature of water

184 C

The temperature at which paper lights on fire

1535 C

The temperature at which iron melts

5530 C

The temperature of the surface of the sun

30000 C

The temperature at which lightning discharges

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