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Translations of Encyclopedia about Physics

 

Transistors

The name of transistor is drawn from the English words of Transfer and resistor and describes transfer resistance. Transistors operate as controlling resistors and control both voltage and current in most electrical circuits. A transistor is made up of various semiconductor layers of type n and p. Transistors are classified as biopolar and unipolar.

With bipolar transistors, only a small amount of current passes through its central section (the base), which controls the transfer of a much greater amount of current between two other parts - emitters and collectors.

If no current passes between the base and the emitter (the base’s current), no current also passes between the collector and the emitter (collector’s current). Any small current passing through the base transfers electron charge carriers to the base layer and makes it conductive, enabling a large collector current to pass through.

There are two types of unipolar (controlled by its fields) transistors (FET): JFET (FET -Feldefekt- barrier layer) and MOSFET (with a layer of oxide metals) transistors. Both of these operate similarly to bipolar transistors but are not controlled by current but rather by the voltage in the grid. The current passes between the source and the collector of the transistor with a control field (drain). These three metal electrodes are then carried over to the active layer.

A small positive charge on the grid attracts electrons of type p to the area between the source and the collector, creating a conductive channel through which a strong current can flow (between the source and the collector). A JFET transistor has a grid located on each end.

Transistors are used like amplifiers. An amplifier is a circuit which increases the amplitude of electronic signals. In stereo equipment, such amplifiers amplify the sound coming out of speakers.

A small current passing between the emitter and the base creates a large current in the collector circuit. The voltage generated during this process corresponds to the strengthened input signal. This is used to transfer electrically coded information.

Transistors have many uses in electronics. In computers, voltage or the lack of voltage is interpreted as information in a binary array as either yes or no (a binary array of 0 - 1, or transferable - nontransferable). The transistor is responsible for activating or deactivating such a logical circuit.

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