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Translations of Encyclopedia about Physics

 

Nobel Prize Winners

The Swedish chemist and industrialist of Alfred Nobel, who became famous for his invention of dynamite and who became very wealthy due to his patent of it, decided to establish a foundation in his will where funds from this foundation would be used to finance the Nobel Prize. The prize is the oldest distinction awarded in the area of science and has been awarded every year since 1901, always on the tenth of December, which is the date when A. Nobel deceased. According to the foundation founding deed, the award is in the form of a golden Nobel medal and a monetary amount. This tradition was stopped several times during both world wars.

Since 1901, the international Nobel prize has been awarded to scientists who, according to a panel, have earned the award for their service in advancing mankind, world peace or understanding between people. The prize is awarded in the following fields: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and economics. The Nobel Peace Prize was also founded.

The Nobel Peace Prize is always handed over in Oslo by the Norwegian king, where the decision who is awarded the prize is made by the Nobel Institute of Peace in Oslo. The other prizes are handed over by the Swedish king in Stockholm, where the decision who is awarded the prize is made by the Royal Swedish Academy of Science.

The financial amount awarded depends on the annual interest revenue of the Nobel Foundation. These revenues have been increasing since 1970 from an amount of 288,000 DM to 1.8 million DM in 1999.

The following table shows Nobel Prize winners between 1900 and the year 2000.

Year Name

Country

Accomplishment
1901 Wilhelm Conrad

Röntgen

Germany

Discovered X-rays
1902 Hendrik A. Lorentz

The Netherlands

Researched the influence of magnetic fields on the flow of a beam of rays
  Pieter Zeeman

The Netherlands

 
1903 Henri A. Becquerel

France

Discovered spontaneous radioactivity
  Marie Curie

Pierre Curie

France

Researched the phenomena of radiation discovered by Becquerel.
1904 Lord John W.

Rayleigh

Great Britain

Researched the grossness/density of gas and discovered argon
1905 Philipp E. Lenard

Germany

Researched short term radiation
1906 Joseph J. Thomson

Great Britain

Electrical effects in gases
1907 Albert A. Michelson

USA

Measured the speed of light
1908 Gabriel Lippmann

France

Discovered methods of colour photographs on the principle of light interference
1909 Karl Ferdinand

Braun

Guglielmo Marconi

Germany

Merited with developing wireless telegraphy
1910 Johann D. van der

Waals

The Netherlands

Molecular forces/equation of state of gases and liquids
1911 Wilhelm Wien

Germany

Discovered laws relating to heat radiation
1912 Nils Gustav Dalén

Sweden

Research in the area of regulating techniques
1913 Heike Kamerlingh

Onnes

The Netherlands

Research of the characteristics of an object during extremely low temperatures
1914 Max von Laue

Germany

Deflection interference of X-rays according to organised crystal atoms (Laue diagram)
1915 Sir William Henry

Bragg

William Lawrence

Bragg

Great Britain

Research of the structure of crystals using an X-ray scope
1916

None awarded

1917 Charles G. Barkia

(awarded in 1918)

Great Britain

Discovery of X-ray elements
1918 Max Planck

Germany

Research in the field of heat radiation, radiation / quantum theory
1919 Johannes Stark

Germany

Discovery of the Stark effect in positive ion rays and split spectral lines in electrical fields
1920 Charles E. Guillaume

France

Introduced the metric convention, measurement anomalies in nickel and steel alloys
1921 Albert Einstein

Germany

The theory of photoelectric effects, luminescent effects
1922 Niels Bohr

Denmark

The atom model, quantum theory
1923 Robert A. Millikan

USA

Measuring electron charges
1924 Karl M. G. Siegbahn

Sweden

X-ray spectroscope
1925 James Franck

Gustav Hertz

Germany

Work on atom and quantum theory, studied energising and ionising voltage in diluted gases, laws of the effect of electrons on atoms
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin

France

Conductivity of gases, the behaviour of emulsion and suspended particles, the negative charge of cathode rays, discontinuity of matter, discovered sedimentary equilibrium
1927 Arthur H. Compton

USA

Discovered the Compton effect, visualisation of the path taken by electrically charged particles from condensed rays
  Charles Thomas

Rees Wilson

Brit.

Observed electrically charged particles
1928 Sir Owen Williams

Richardson

Brit.

Research on heat ions
1929 Prinz Louis Victor de Broglie

Fr.

Researched the mechanics of waves
1930 Sir Ch. V. Raman

India

Raman effect during the molecular diffusion of light
1931

None awarded

1932 Werner Heisenberg

Germany

Laid the foundation of quantum mechanics
1933 Paul Adiren M. Dirac

Erwin Schrödinger

Brit. Austr.

Quantum theory, wave mechanics
1934

None awarded

1935 James Chadwick

Brit.

Discovered neutrons
1936 Carl D. anderson

USA

Discovered cosmic radiation
  Victor F. Heß

Austr.

Discovered positrons
1937 Clinton J. Davisson

Sir George P.

Thomson

USA Brit.

Discovered the inflection of electrons when passing through crystal
1938 Enrico Fermi

Italy

Transformation of atom nucleus using neutron radiation
1939 Ernest O. Lawrence

USA

Discovered cyclotrons
1940

None awarded

1941

None awarded

1942

None awarded

1943 Otto Stern

USA

Molecular radiation, magnetic moment of protons
1944 Isidor I. Rabi

USA

Magnetic characteristics of atom nucleus protons
1945 Wolfgang Pauli

Austr.

Quantum physics Paul’s principle
1946 Percy Williams

Bridgman

USA

Research in the field of high pressures
1947 Sir Edward Victor

Appleton

Brit.

Research of ionospheres (Appleton layers)
1948 Patrick Maynard

Stuart Blackett

Brit.

Research in cosmic radiation
1949 Hideki Yukawa

Jap.

Prognosis of the existence of mesons
1950 Cecil F. Powell

Brit.

Discovered mesons

Research of the processes of atom nucleuses using photographic methods

1951 Sir John D.

Cockcroft

Ernest T. Walton

Brit. Ireland

Transformation of atom nucleuses by artificially accelerated atom particles (particle accelerator)
1952 Felix Bloch

Edward

M. Purcell

USA

Development of new and exact methods of measuring nuclear magnetism (NMR)
1953 Frits Zernike

The Netherlands

Perfected the radiation microscope using phase contrast
1954 Max Born

Brit.

Quantum mechanics
  Walther Bothe

Germany

Developed coincidental methods
1955 Polykarp Kusch

USA

Determined magnetic momentum in electrons
  Willis Eugene Lamp (jun.)

USA

Discovered the fine structures of the hydrogen spectrum
1956 John Bardeen

Walter H. Brattain

William Shockley

USA

Development of the transistor
1957 Tsung Dao Lee

Cheng Ning Yang

USA

Laws of parity
1958 Ilya M. Frank

Igor J. Tamm

Pavel A.

Čerenkov

Russia

Discovery and explanation of Cherenkev’s effect
1959 Owen Chamberlain

Emilio G. Serge

USA,

Italy

Discovered antiprotons
1960 Donald A. Glaser

USA

Invented bubble chambers
1961 Robert Hofstadter

USA

Discovered nucleon structures
  Rudolf Mößbauer

Germany

Research in resonance absorption of gamma radiation
1962 Lev D. Landau

Russia

Condensed state of matter and the theory of low temperature
1963 Maria Goeppert-

Mayer

Johannes Hans D.

Jensen

USA, Germany

Discovered the structure of atom shells
  Eugene Paul

Wigner

USA

Hungary

Discovered the principle of symmetry
1964 Nikolaj Basov

Alexander

Prochorov

Charles Townes

Russia

 

USA

Construction of oscillators and amplifiers which have led to the construction of lasers
1965 Richard P. Feynman

Julian S. Schwinger

Shin‘ichiro

Tomonaga

USA Jap.

Research in quantum electrodynamics
1966 Alfred Kastler

Fr.

Development of optical methods when studying frequency resonance
1967 Hans A. Bethe

Germany

Contributed to the theory of nuclear reactions and made discoveries in energy production in stars
1968 Luis W. Alvarez

USA

Major contribution to the physics of elementary particles
1969 Murray Gell-Mann

USA

Classified elementary particles, discovered resonance states and the use of bubble chambers
1970 Hannes O. Alfvén

Sweden

Discoveries in magnetohydrodynamics and application in plasma physics
  Louis E. Néel

Fr.

Work in antiferromagnetism and ferromagnetism
1971 Dennis Gabor

Brit.

Development of holographics
1972 John Bardeen

Leon N. Cooper

John R. Schrieffer

USA

Theory of superconductivity
1973 Leo Esaki Ivar

Giaever

Jap. USA, Austr.

Tunnel effects in semiconductors and superconductors
  Brian Josephson

Brit.

Theoretical prediction of tunnel currents and Joseph’s effect in tunnel barriers
1974 Sir Martin Ryle

Antony Hewish

Brit.

Radiostrophysics and contributed to the discovery of pulsars
1975 Aage Bohr

Ben Mottelson

James Rainwater

Denmark,

USA

Work which led to the understanding of the atom nucleus, movement of particles and paths to nuclear fusion
1976 Burton Richter

Samuel C.C. Ting

USA

Discovered new classes of heavy elementary particles (Y or J)
1977 Phillip W. anderson

John H. van Vleck

Neville F. Mott

USA

Brit

Contributions to the behaviour of electrons in magnetic, non-crystal solid substances
1978 Pjotr Leonidovič

Russia

Discoveries in low temperature physics
  Arno A. Penzias

Robert Wilson

USA

Discoveries in microwave remains of cosmic radiation
1979 Sheldon Lee

Glashow

Steven Weinberg

Abdus Salam

USA

Pakist.

Discovered an analogy between electromagnetism and weak interactions between subatomic particles
1980 James W. Cronin

Val L. Fitch

USA

Demonstrated the concurrent disturbance of symmetry of charged conjugation and parity inversion
1981 Nicolaas

Bloembergen

Arthur Leonard

Schawlow

USA

Laser spectroscope and spectroscope methods
  Kai Manne Siegbahn

Sweden

Development of the electron spectroscope
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson

USA

Analysis of continuous phase conversions
1983 Subrahmanyan

Chandrasekhar

William A. Fowler

USA

The meaning of nuclear reaction for the formation of stars, problems relating to star formation
1984 Carlo Rubbia

Simon van der

Meer

Italy, the Netherlands

Discovery of W and Z subatomic particles, theory of weak electrical interactions
1985 Klaus v. Klitzing

Germany

Discovery of the quantum Hallo effect, which enables the exact measurement of electrical resistance
1986 Ernst Ruska

Gerd Binnig

Heinrich Rohrer

Germany, Switzerland

Fundamental work in electron optics and development of the first electron tunnel microscope
1987 Johannes Georg

Bednorz

Karl Alex Müller

Germany

Discovery of superconductor ceramic material
1988 Leon Max

Lederman

Melvin Schwartz

Jack Steinberger

USA

Fundamental work in subatomic particles - neutrino
1989 Wolfgang Paul

Germany

Development of ion traps
  Hans Georg Dehmelt

USA, Germany

Preparing methods of ionisation of atoms and subatomic particles
  Norman Foster

Ramsey

USA

Basic work for the hydrogen maser and other atomic levels, transformation between energy states in atoms
1990 Jerome I. Friedman

Henry W. Kendall

Richard E. Taylor

USA

Canada

Non-elastic diffusion of electrons and protons which has led to discoveries in the atomic quark model
1991 Pierre-Gilles de

Gennes

Fr.

Work in liquid crystals, polymers, gels, magnets and superconductors
1992 Georges Charpak

Fr.

Drift and proportional chambers, detection of elementary particles in an accelerator during collisions
1993 Russell A. Hulse

Joseph Taylor (jun.)

USA

Discovery of binary pulsars which paved the ground for new studies in gravity
1994 Bertram N.

Brockhouse

Clifford G. Shull

Canada

USA

Development and application of methods of neutron diffusion for studies in condensed matter
1995 Martin L. Perl

USA

Entdeckung des Tauons (Tau

Leptons)

  Frederick Reines

USA

Nachweis des Neutrinos
1996 David M. Lee

Douglas D. Osheroff

Robert C.

Richardson

USA

Discovery of super liquidity in helium 3
1997 Steven Chu Claude

Cohen-Tannoudji

William D. Phillips

USA, Fr.

USA

Development of methods which enable the cooling and capture of atoms using laser radiation
1998 Robert B. Laughlin

Horst L. Störmer

Daniel C. Tsui

USA

Germany

USA USA

Discoveries in a new type of quantum fluids with fraction charged impulses and strong magnetic fields of mutually working electrons - Hall’s effect
1999 Gerardus ´t Hooft

Martinus J.G.

Veltman

The Netherlands

Theory of quantum structures in weak electrical interactions
2000 Zhores I Alferov

Russia

Fundamental work in communication and information technology
  Herbert Kroemer

D

Development of semiconductor techniques in high-crystal techniques and optoelectronics
  Jack S Kilby

USA

Participation in the development of integrated switching circuits

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